The Pyrenees, the Pyrenees Mountains (Spanish: Pirineos, French: Pyrenees), is a mountain system in Southwestern Europe (in Spain, France, and Andorra). The Pyrenees mountain range is an important natural boundary separating the Mediterranean from Central Europe. It stretches from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea for about 450 km, up to 110 km wide (in the central and eastern parts), with a maximum height of 3,404 m (Aneto Peak in the Maladeta Massif, Spain).
As a result of tectonic movements (mainly of Alpine age) the ancient Hercynian core of the Pyrenees was raised to a considerable height and the overlying sedimentary sequences were folded in steep folds, forming in some places thrusts. The relief of the Pyrenees is characterized by a combination of medium-altitude flat-topped massifs and folded rectilinear-drawn ridges. In the highest parts of the mountains, which were subjected to Pleistocene glaciation, the relief acquired alpine forms. Contemporary glaciation (total area of about 40 km km2) is concentrated in the Central Pyrenees, composed mainly of crystalline rocks - granites, gneisses, as well as shales and sandstones. Usually the Pyrenees mountain system is divided into three major regions: the Atlantic (Western), Central (Aragonese) and Eastern (Mediterranean) Pyrenees. Territorially today, the Pyrenees region includes the following departments in France: Aude, Ariege, Upper Garonne, the Upper (Eastern) Pyrenees, and the Atlantic Pyrenees. In Spain, it includes the Basque Country, Navarra, Lerida, Huesca, Girona and Catalonia.
In the Atlantic (Western) Pyrenees, which belong to France and Spain, the mountains rise gradually from west to east. The Western Pyrenees are medium-altitude mountains composed mainly of Mesozoic limestones with isolated masses of crystalline rocks.
The Aragonese (Central) Pyrenees belong to Spain. This is their highest part, here are the highest peaks of the region Aneto (3404 m), Monte Perdido (3348 m), Vignmal (3298 m). The most accessible slopes of the Aragonese Pyrenees lie in Spain. The Somport Pass (1632 m) connects Spain with France. A little further south, in the Huesca area, parallel to the main ridge are the Sierra de Guerra mountains, the southern border of the Pyrenees. From the south, the Pyrenees of Aragon are almost always flooded with sun, the mountains are steep and precipitous, and small wooded valleys stretch between them.
The eastern, or Mediterranean Pyrenees, ridges and massifs, the slopes of which are covered with pine forests, hollows, belong mainly to Spain and partly to France. Here they are separated by a dwarf, entirely Pyrenean state, the Principality of Andorra. The eastern Pyrenees are ridges and massifs of crystalline rocks, sandstones, limestones, dissected by intra-mountain basins with flat bottoms.
Pyrenees Mountains and foothills in France - one of the most colorful regions of the country: green mountains in the west are replaced by snowy peaks and dry foothills in the east, the population is also diverse - there are Basques, Gasconians, Catalans and representatives of small nations of Europe. And at the same time, in comparison with the same Alps, nature is clean and untouched, there are extensive protected areas, but almost no luxurious and forever bustling with life resorts alpine type, and those that are - are small, comfortable and focus mostly not only for skiers, but also for fans of other types of recreation. In this case the western slopes of the mountains rest in the seaside resort areas of the Spanish Basque Country and the French Silver Coast, and the eastern slopes overlook the warm Mediterranean coast. As a result, in the Pyrenees you can find conditions for almost any kind of holiday, which attracts many tourists, especially the French and Spaniards who visit the Pyrenees in droves, coming here, most often in their own cars for 1-2 days to admire the mountain scenery.